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Threats To Media Freedom In Africa: Some Old Methods And Some New

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Threats To Media Freedom In Africa

The government of Benin has cancelled a recent decree that imposed a tax on users of platforms such as Twitter, Facebook and WhatsApp. Known as “over-the-top” platforms, they can deliver media content directly to users without using traditional telecommunications infrastructure such as terrestrial broadcast or satellite signals.

Local and international activists protested against the decree in Benin arguing that it was a blatant attack on the freedom of expression and net neutrality.

The tax follows similar developments in Uganda and Tanzania. In July this year Uganda imposed a tax on these platforms. The average monthly cash income for Ugandans is just over USD$100. Tanzania passed a blanket law on online content creators forcing bloggers to pay up to USD$900 for a three year licence. And in Zambia, the government introduced a levy on internet calls this year for WhatsApp, Skype and Viber.

Elsewhere on the continent, a number of governments are introducing new legislation targeting social media users. Kenya, for example, passed the Computer Misuse and Cybercrimes Bill last year to police social media activity. Zambia plans to introduce a cybersecurity and cybercrimes law to do the same.

The rush to monitor online activity has been spurred by widespread internet connectivity, which continues to grow year on year, and the ubiquity of smart phones. As a result, social media is slowly becoming the new frontier for state clampdown on free speech as governments exercise increased control over digital platforms.

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Controlling the narrative

The digital space has altered communication patterns with social media becoming the preeminent arena for public communication and culture. It has also become fertile ground for social and political
organisation. This has threatened the status-quo.

File 20181001 195275 1ppxxes.jpg?ixlib=rb 1.1The push to tax social media users is gaining momentum across Africa.
Shutterstock

Historically, African governments have exercised inordinate power over the media, particularly the “independent media”, in a bid to stifle dissent. They have done this by force, and by direct and indirect means. Governments, in Ethiopia and Uganda have shut down media houses. In Kenya and Nigeria they have controlled media through proxies, and withheld advertising revenues.

The power of social media is that it’s less reliant on state structures and can therefore evade control. This makes it harder for governments to control the social and political narrative.

Social media enables conversations to happen that many governments find uncomfortable. Users can forge alliances and challenge the state’s version of events. They can also use social media platforms to organise and mobilise people. This has been particularly evident in Uganda recently.

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Across the continent we now see social media used to give visibility to various social and political issues which would otherwise go unnoticed; from protests over university fees in South Africa, to corruption scandals in Kenya, numerous examples abound.

Subtle containment

As social media has become more ubiquitous, it’s become harder for governments to simply shut down traditional media outlets. The political backlash has been swift and brutal where governments have tried to do this, like they have in Kenya and Uganda.

As a result governments have been forced to use subtler forms of containment or control. These include taxation and legislation.

Governments have proffered various reasons for introducing these new measures. In Uganda, the government argued that the social media tax was intended to raise government revenue for public services , while in Zambia the tax was allegedly meant to protect the telecoms sector and local jobs. In Kenya social media legislation has been premised on the need to discipline or eliminate rogue online voices, particularly those peddling hate speech.

Some of these arguments may have merit. For example, social media has emboldened, and even provided sanctuary, to racist bigots, ethnic jingoists, bullies, and political anarchists. In some countries it has inflamed conflict precisely because of the anonymity it provides. That plus the lack of gatekeeping or moderation processes. It was, for example, cited as one of the platforms used to inflame the post-election violence after Kenya’s 2007 contested general election. Terrorist groups like Al-Shabaab and Boko Haram have also been quite adept at exploiting these platforms to recruit, inspire and disseminate their messages to followers.

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But it’s clear that the real targets of these new taxes and laws are the vocal government critics in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. The measures seem intent on neutering dissent, and ultimately reclaiming control of communication platforms and practices.

The successful fightback in Benin against the social media tax will therefore provide some comfort to those worried about the clampdown on digital platforms on the continent. However, the ingenuity and brazenness of governments should be a cause for concern. Africa’s democracy can only be poorer without a free and vibrant social media.The Conversation

George Ogola, Reader in Journalism, University of Central Lancashire

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

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African News

Namibia Receives More COVID-19 Medicals Supplies From China

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Namibia Receives More COVID-19 Medicals Supplies From China

Namibia has on Thursday received a batch of COVID-19 supplies worth 300,000 U.S. dollars donated by the Chinese State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi on the occasion of China’s 71st anniversary.

Namibia’s Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of International Relations and Cooperation, Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah speaking at the handover event held in Windhoek conveyed warm congratulations to China as it celebrates its anniversary, stating that the donation comes at an opportune time as the two countries continue to strengthen diplomatic ties.

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The donation included 30,000 N95 masks, 10 oxygenators, 20 ventilators, and 100 thermometers, making this the fourth batch of COVID-19 supply donations from the Chinese government so far.

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The Chinese Ambassador to Namibia Zhang Yiming said the friendly protocol arrangement demonstrates the friendly relationship and common determination to jointly fight the COVID-19 between China and Namibia.

Meanwhile, Namibia’s executive director of the Ministry of Health, Ben Nangombe, said the items Namibia received from China have gone a long way in assisting the country’s health sector, be it through donated clinical materials or through telemedicine conferences.

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Sierra Leone’s Former President Ordered To Appear Before Anti-Graft Commission

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Former Sierra Leone President Ernest Bai Koroma Ordered to Appear Before Anti-Graft Commission

Sierra Leone’s former president Ernest Bai Koroma must appear before an anti-graft commission Monday to answer questions about alleged corruption during his 2007-2018 tenure.

Koroma has previously denied any wrongdoing, calling the move a witch hunt, he said the allegations of corruption involving mining, construction and procurement contracts are “without merit and are a politically motivated charade calculated to impugn my hard-earned reputation”.

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As consequence, Ugandan government has imposed a travel ban on Koroma and more than 100 other officials, including Koroma’s former vice president, Victor Bockarie Foh.

A judicial probe had accused them of unlawfully enriching themselves during his just over a decade tenure.

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On Wednesday, Reuters reported that the All People’s Congress party, which Koroma still leads, is planning to appeal the action against him.

Koroma in a statement has said he had served the country “diligently, fairly and with honour and integrity” saying that he was known for his fight against corruption.

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Coronavirus: Uganda Reopens Borders For Passengers

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Coronavirus: Uganda Reopens Borders For Passengers

Uganda has called for strict compliance with COVID-19 travel protocols as it reopened its international borders for the first time since March.

The country had earlier closed its borders to passenger travel as a control measure to fight the coronavirus pandemic which has now infected more than 8,000 and killed 75 in the country.

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On Thursday morning, the national carrier, Uganda Airlines ran its regional flights to Nairobi, Kenya, and Mogadishu, Somalia, as scheduled.

Other international airlines have also been landing and taking off.

To avoid self-isolation, travellers coming into Uganda will be required to present a negative Covid test taken within 72 hours of their departure.

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But if someone arrives without a test certificate, a sample will be taken and they will be made to quarantine at their own cost as they await results.

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Authorities at the airport are encouraging passengers to use self-service booths where available to minimize contact and also advised out-bound travellers to be at the airport at least four hours before scheduled departure.

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